|Academic Officer:||Provost & EVP|
|Academic Office:||AA – Academic Affairs|
|Staff Officer:||EVP – Chief Financial Officer|
|Staff Office:||FA – Financial Accounting|
|Issuance Date:||June 21, 2018|
|Effective Date:||June 21, 2018|
|Last Review Date:||New Policy|
|Scope:||UC Faculty, Academic Appointees, Staff, Students (including student employees), |
non-employee participants in University programs
(e.g., visiting scholars, vendors, and contractors).
Executive Director, Research Policy Analysis and Coordination
Office of the Chief Financial Officer
Associate Vice President, Systemwide Controller
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. POLICY SUMMARY.
III. POLICY TEXT
VI. RELATED INFORMATION
VII. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS.
VIII. REVISION HISTORY
I. POLICY SUMMARY
This Policy addresses the University of California’s (“University”) compliance with U.S. export control laws and regulations,1 while adhering to the University’s mission as an institution of higher education. The University maintains an open academic environment in support of its mission of teaching, research, and public service. At the same time, export control laws and regulations control the conditions under which certain information, technologies, and commodities can be exported2 overseas to anyone, including U.S. citizens, or to a foreign national within the U.S. The University is committed to complying with all U.S. export control laws in both research and non- research activities.
The Policy provides a general structure for Export Control Compliance Programs throughout the University. Each UC Location is responsible for managing its own Export Control Compliance Program. This Policy and the Export Control Compliance Programs are established to facilitate compliance with the U.S. government’s export control laws and regulations by all members of the University community (Faculty and Other Academic Appointees, Staff, Students and Non-employee participants in University programs).
This Policy applies to all University activities. Export control violations can result in civil and criminal penalties against the University, and/or assessment of fines or imprisonment of an individual.
Included are some excerpts of definitions intended to facilitate the reading of this policy, but note that definitions vary slightly from one federal regulation to another. The ITAR and EAR definitions are provided here as the most common.3 UC Locations are advised to review the applicable regulations, and in case of inconsistency, the definitions associated with the cognizant regulations shall take precedence over definitions provided here.
Commerce Control List
Directorate of Defense Trade Controls
Export Administration Regulations
Export Control Classification Number
Export Control Officer
Fundamental Research Exclusion
Foreign Trade Regulations
International Traffic in Arms Regulations
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Office of Foreign Assets Control
Systemwide Export Control Officer
Technology Control Plan
U.S. Munitions List
1 See Section VI of this Policy for a list of U.S. export control regulations in effect at the time this Policy was issued and their corresponding federal agencies.
2 An export can include, but is not limited to, hand-carrying or shipping an item, sending information or data about an item electronically, or sharing information about an item through a phone or in-person conversation. See Export definition for more detail.
3 The International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) under the U.S. Department of State regulate the export and temporary import of defense articles and services. The Export Administration Regulations (EAR) under the U.S. Department of Commerce regulate the export of items that are designed for commercial purposes, but which could have military applications.
B. Deemed Export
As defined under the ITAR, 22 C.F.R. § 120.17, Deemed Export means:
“Releasing or otherwise transferring ‘technical data’ to a foreign person in the United States.”
As defined under the EAR, 15 C.F.R. § 734.13, Deemed Export means:
“Releasing or otherwise transferring ‘technology’ or source code (but not object code)4 to a foreign person in the United States.”
C. Defense Article
Defense Articles are items on the U.S. Munitions List (see 22 C.F.R. § 121), including technical data about such items. These are generally inherently military in design and purpose, though the term also includes items and technical data that are not inherently military, such as satellites or items that incorporate a defense article.
D. Empowered Official
As defined under the ITAR, 22 C.F.R. §120.25, an Empowered Official is a U.S. person who:
“(1) Is directly employed by the applicant or a subsidiary in a position having authority for policy or management within the applicant organization; and
(2) Is legally empowered in writing by the applicant to sign license applications or other requests for approval on behalf of the applicant; and
(3) Understands the provisions and requirements of the various export control statutes and regulations, and the criminal liability, civil liability and administrative penalties for violating the Arms Export Control Act and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations; and
(4) Has the independent authority to: (i) Enquire into any aspect of a proposed export or temporary import by the applicant, and (ii) Verify the legality of the transaction and the accuracy of the information to be submitted; and (iii) Refuse to sign any license application or other request for approval without prejudice or other adverse recourse.”
4 “Software” is defined as “a collection of one or more ‘programs’ or ‘microprograms’ fixed in any tangible medium of expression,” and “Source Code (or source language)” is defined as “a convenient expression of one or more processes that may be turned by a programming system into equipment executable form (‘object code’ (or object language)).” 15 C.F.R. § 772
As defined under the ITAR, 22 C.F.R. § 120.17, Export means:
“(1) An actual shipment or transmission out of the United States, including the sending or taking of a defense article out of the United States in any manner;
(2) Releasing or otherwise transferring technical data to a foreign person in the United States (a ‘deemed export’);
(3) Transferring registration, control, or ownership of any aircraft, vessel, or satellite subject to the ITAR by a U.S. person to a foreign person;
(4) Releasing or otherwise transferring a defense article to an embassy or to any of its agencies or subdivisions, such as a diplomatic mission or consulate, in the United States;
(5) Performing a defense service on behalf of, or for the benefit of, a foreign person, whether in the United States or abroad; or
(6) A launch vehicle or payload shall not, by reason of the launching of such vehicle, be considered an export . . . . However, for certain limited purposes . . . , the controls. . . may apply to any sale, transfer or proposal to sell or transfer defense articles or defense services.”
As defined under the EAR, 15 C.F.R. § 734.13, Export means:
“(1) An actual shipment or transmission out of the United States, including the sending or taking of an item out of the United States, in any manner;
(2) Releasing or otherwise transferring “technology” or source code (but not object code) to a foreign person in the United States (a “deemed export”);
(3) Transferring by a person in the United States of registration, control, or ownership of:
- A spacecraft subject to the EAR that is not eligible for export under License Exception STA (i.e., spacecraft that provides space-based logistics, assembly or servicing of any spacecraft) to a person in or a national of any other country; or
- Any other spacecraft subject to the EAR to a person in or a national of a Country Group D:5 country.”6
5 Be mindful of the regulations that apply to your specific circumstances. For example, the Department of Energy (DOE) and OFAC regulations do not explicitly define export, but do offer information on the scope of their regulations. 10 C.F.R. § 810.2; OFAC Sanctions Programs and Country Information
6 The list of countries that are part of Country Group D:5 are provided in the EAR. 15 C.F.R. § 740.1, Supplement No. 1.
F. Foreign Person
As defined under the ITAR, 22 C.F.R. § 120.16, and the EAR, 15 C.F.R. § 772.1, a Foreign Person7 is a person who IS NOT a U.S. person. A U.S. person includes a:
- Citizen of the United States;
- Lawful permanent resident, i.e., a person lawfully accorded the privilege of residing permanently in the United States as an immigrant in accordance with the immigration laws;8
- Person who is a protected individual, e.g., a person admitted as a refugee or granted asylum;9 or
- Corporation, business association, partnership, society, trust, or any other entity, organization or group that is incorporated to do business in the United States, and any governmental (federal, state, or local) entity in the United States.
G. Fundamental Research
As defined under the ITAR, 22 C.F.R. § 120.11(8), Fundamental Research means:
“basic and applied research in science and engineering where the resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly within the scientific community, as distinguished from research the results of which are restricted for proprietary reasons or specific U.S. Government access and dissemination controls. University research will not be considered fundamental research if:
- The University or its researchers accept other restrictions on publication of scientific and technical information resulting from the project or activity, or
- The research is funded by the U.S. Government and specific access and dissemination controls protecting information resulting from the research are applicable.”
As defined under the EAR, 15 C.F.R. § 734.8(c), Fundamental Research means:
“research in science, engineering, or mathematics, the results of which ordinarily are published and shared broadly within the research community, and for which the researchers have not accepted restrictions for proprietary or national security reasons.”
H. Fundamental Research Exclusion (FRE) 10
The Fundamental Research Exclusion (FRE) provides that technology or software that arises during, or results from, fundamental research and is intended to be published is excluded from the export control regulations.11
10 See 22 C.F.R. § 120.11(a)(8); 15 C.F.R. § 734.8; 10 C.F.R. § 810.3; see also National Policy on the Transfer of Scientific, Technical and Engineering Information, Nat’l Security Decisions Directives 189 (Sept. 21, 1985).
11 The FRE does not apply to all University activities. Please see section IV.A for a greater discussion on how the FRE applies.
I. Restricted Party
An individual, organization or entity appearing on any one of the U.S. government restricted party lists (e.g., the Department of Treasury Specially Designated Nationals List (SDN) or the Department of Commerce Entity List) as a party prohibited from receiving U.S. exports or financial transactions and/or with whom
U.S. persons are restricted from engaging in export or financial transactions.
J. Technical Data/Technology
As defined under the ITAR, 22 C.F.R. § 120.10, Technical Data means:
“(1) Information, other than software as defined [below]12, which is required for the design, development, production, manufacture, assembly, operation, repair, testing, maintenance or modification of defense articles. This includes information in the form of blueprints, drawings, photographs, plans, instructions or documentation.
(2) Classified information relating to defense articles and defense services . . .;13
(3) Information covered by an invention secrecy order; or
(4) Software . . . directly related to defense articles.”
This definition does not include the following: (1) information concerning general scientific, mathematical, or engineering principles commonly taught in schools, colleges, and universities, (2) information in the public domain,14 or (3) basic marketing information on function or purpose or general system descriptions of defense articles.
As defined under the EAR, 15 C.F.R. § 772, Technology means “[i]nformation necessary for the ‘development,’ ‘production,’ ‘use,’ operation, installation, maintenance, repair, overhaul, or refurbishing . . . of an item. Technology “may be in any tangible or intangible form, such as written or oral communications, blueprints, drawings, photographs, plans, diagrams, models, formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, computer-aided design files, manuals or documentation, electronic media or information revealed through visual inspection.”
K. UC Location
UC Location refers to the UC campuses and Health Systems, LBNL, and ANR.
12 “Software includes but is not limited to the system functional design, logic flow, algorithms, application programs, operating systems, and support software for design, implementation, test, operation, diagnosis and repair.” 22 C.F.R.§ 120.45(f).
13 Includes classified information relating to defense articles and defense services on the U.S. Munitions List, and classified information related to formerly ITAR-controlled articles subsequently appearing on the Commerce Control List (e.g. those in the ECCN -500 or -600 series).
14 Public domain means “information which is published and which is generally accessible or available to the public.” 22 C.F.R. § 120.11.
III. POLICY TEXT
This Policy is to assure compliance with U.S. export control laws and regulations. Federal export control laws and regulations restrict the transfer of specific items, information, and/or services for reasons of national security or trade protection. In general, the export control regulations control:
- The export from the United States to a foreign country of certain items, information, or software;
- Verbal, written, electronic, or visual disclosures or transfer of scientific and technical information related to controlled items to foreign persons or entities inside or outside the United States;
- Transactions with, or travel to, certain sanctioned or embargoed countries for the conduct of activities such as teaching or research, or attending conferences; and
- Financial transactions, exports, re-exports,15 and deemed exports16 of items and information to Restricted Parties or End Users, or for Restricted End Uses.17
This Policy applies to all University staff, faculty, academic appointees, students (including student employees), and non-employee participants in University programs at its campuses including the UC Health Systems, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), the Office of the President, Agriculture and Natural Resources (ANR), and all University programs and activities.
15 Re-exports may require licenses from the U.S. government or carry additional restrictions even if the item is in a foreign country. Under the EAR, a re-export is an actual shipment or transmission from one foreign country to another foreign country. 15 C.F.R. § 734.2(b)(4). Under the ITAR, a re-export is a transfer of defense articles or defense services to an end-use, end-user, or destination not previously authorized by license, written approval, or exemption. 22 C.F.R. § 120.19.
16 A deemed export is a verbal, written, electronic, or visual disclosure of EAR or ITAR-controlled scientific and technical information to foreign nationals in the United States. Such a release is “deemed” to be an export to the home country or countries of the foreign national. This Policy uses the term “deemed export” when discussing access by foreign nationals to controlled information in the United States, without regard to which agency may have cognizance over the transaction. See 15 C.F.R. § 734.13(2); 22 C.F.R. § 120.17(a)(2).
17 Restricted End Use and End Users are identified in the EAR. 15 C.F.R. § 744
Generally speaking, the export control regulations permit U.S. universities to allow foreign nationals (e.g., students, faculty, academic appointees, and non-employee participants in University programs) to participate in fundamental research projects without securing a license. They also permit U.S. universities to share with foreign
nationals in the U.S. or abroad “‘technology’ or ‘software’ that arises during, or results from, fundamental research and is intended to be published,” also without securing a license.18 This carve-out is known as the Fundamental Research Exclusion, or the FRE.19 Thus, our principal strategy for compliance with the U.S. export control regulations is based upon maintaining an open, fundamental research environment. Indeed, principal University tenets, including the freedom to publish and disseminate research results,20 nondiscrimination21 and open access to University classrooms, libraries, laboratories, and specialized research facilities, without regard to citizenship,22 are consistent with the requirements of the FRE.23 To maintain the FRE, no University employee can consent (e.g., as a term or condition of an award or in a written or verbal side agreement or arrangement), or otherwise engage in behavior that restricts publication or the participation of foreign nationals.
In addition, the University assures compliance with the U.S. export control regulations by obtaining export licenses and/or implementing control plans when appropriate. Even in the course of fundamental research, transactions, items, or activities may require export licenses, control plans, or other compliance approaches. Transactions, items, or activities that may require export licenses, control plans, or other approaches to ensure compliance with the export control regulations include, but are not limited to:
- Transfer of proprietary information related to controlled items or technology,
- Receipt of ITAR-controlled items,
- Sales and service agreements related to controlled items or technology,
- Physical exports outside the U.S. of hardware, software, or technology,
- Dealings with restricted parties or entities,
- Defense services,24
- Restricted end uses, or
- Transactions involving embargoed or sanctioned parties/countries.
19 See 22 C.F.R. § 120.11(a)(8); 15 C.F.R. § 734.8; 10 C.F.R. § 810.3; see also National Policy on the Transfer of Scientific, Technical and Engineering Information, Nat’l Security Decisions Directives 189 (Sept. 21, 1985).
20 See Academic Personnel Manual 010. See also University of California Office of the President, Contract and Grant Manual § 1-410 [hereinafter C&G Manual]
21 See C&G Manual § 14-700. See also Nondiscrimination and Affirmative Action Policy Regarding Academic and Staff Employment (Jul. 3, 2013); Regents Policy 4400: Policy on University of California Diversity Statement (Sept. 16, 2010).
22 See Memorandum from Robert N. Shelton, Vice Provost for Research, to the Vice Chancellors for Research, Unacceptable Controls Based on U.S. Citizenship Status (C&G Memo 00-05) (Dec. 15, 1999).
23 See 22 C.F.R. § 120.11(a)(8); 15 C.F.R. § 734.8; 10 C.F.R. § 810.3. See also National Policy on the Transfer of Scientific, Technical and Engineering Information, Nat’l Security Decisions Directives 189 (Sept. 21, 1985).
24 Per the ITAR, Defense Service means:(1) The furnishing of assistance (including training) to foreign persons, whether in the United States or abroad in the design, development, engineering, manufacture, production, assembly, testing, repair, maintenance, modification, operation, demilitarization, destruction, processing or use of defense articles; (2) The furnishing to foreign persons of any technical data controlled under ITAR (see §120.10), whether in the United States or abroad; or (3) Military training of foreign units and forces, regular and irregular, including formal or informal instruction of foreign persons in the United States or abroad or by correspondence courses, technical, educational, or information publications and media of all kinds, training aid, orientation, training exercise, and military advice. (See also §124.1.). 22 C.F.R. § 120.9.
Compliance with the export control regulations requires the cooperation and shared responsibility of many offices and persons across the University system. These are described below in general terms. Also see Appendix A for a list of potentially affected activities.
1. UC Office of the President (UCOP)
Implementation of Export Control Regulations is handled by a number of persons/units within UCOP. These include:
The UC President has “full authority and responsibility over the administration of all affairs and operations of the University.”25 The President provides leadership commitment to compliance with export control regulations, identifying and delegating authority to a key senior officer(s) who will oversee the export control compliance program, and designating ITAR Empowered Official(s).
Ethics, Compliance and Audit Services (ECAS) is responsible for overseeing the University’s compliance with export control regulations. The Chief Compliance and Audit Officer may be designated by the President as an Empowered Official under the ITAR. The Chief Compliance and Audit Officer also designates the Systemwide Export Control Officer (SECO) and recommends ITAR Empowered Officials to the President.
The SECO is responsible for coordinating systemwide communication and maintaining and disseminating regulatory information to UC Locations. In addition, specifically with regard to ITAR, the SECO may be designated by the President as an Empowered Official responsible for ITAR compliance and coordination with UC Locations.
Academic Affairs through its Research Policy Analysis & Coordination (RPAC) unit is responsible for providing institutional policy and guidance with regard to export control regulations and other governmental regulations that potentially impact research publication and access. RPAC also advocates on behalf of the University to outside parties on export control issues related to research.
The Office of the CFO is responsible for ensuring, with the Chief Compliance Officer and Empowered Official, that UC Locations implement export control policies and procedures.
UC Office of General Counsel (OGC) provides legal advice including access to outside counsel as needed. OGC may also coordinate with local Campus Counsel.
Other Offices at UCOP
Export control regulations may impact units other than those Office of the President units named above, such as Procurement Services, Academic Personnel, Human Resources, Risk Services, and Financial Accounting. These units are responsible for supporting compliance with the export control regulations by cooperating with ECAS, Academic Affairs, and the Office of the CFO, ensuring that their respective policies are consistent with export control regulations and disseminating training and guidance to their campus constituents as needed.
25 University of California Board of Regents, Standing Order 100.4(a). This authority excludes only those activities which are the responsibility of the Secretary and Chief of Staff, Chief Investment Officer, General Counsel of The Regents, and Senior Vice President – Chief Compliance and Audit Officer.
2. UC Campuses, the UC Health Systems, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and the Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources (ANR)
Each UC Location is responsible for creating a local Export Control Compliance program that is consistent with this policy and all U.S. export control laws and regulations. Each UC Location shall establish practices and procedures for effective implementation, taking into consideration its local environment and infrastructure. Responsibility for compliance with such local Export Control Compliance programs resides with the following:
Local Export Control Officer(s)
Individuals designated by executive leadership at each UC Location as Export Control Officers (ECOs) shall be responsible for the monitoring and oversight of the local Export Control Compliance program (including regular assessments). ECOs shall be issued appropriate delegations of authority to effectively implement the local Export Control Compliance program. ECOs will serve as the primary point of contact and subject matter experts at that location.26
The ECOs are responsible for reviewing the applicability of export control regulations and/or determining options for export licensing, exceptions, or control plans to mitigate risk. As part of the review process, the ECOs consult with the persons involved in the transaction (e.g., researchers or staff) to understand the technology and the specifics of the situation.
Other Administrative Offices
Routine activities at the UC Locations such as research, shipping, and processing foreign national visas may have export control regulatory implications. Functionally, export control compliance impacts a broad range of offices and departments. These offices include, but are not limited to the following:
- Academic Personnel
- Business Contracts
- Contracts and Grants
- Cooperative Extensions
- Accounts Payable
- General Counsel
- Health Systems
- Human Resources
- Information Technology
- International Students and Scholars Offices and International Centers
- Material Management and Asset Management
- Risk Management
- Technology Transfer
The local Export Control Compliance program should include education, training, and procedures for all gatekeepers. All offices and departments impacted by export control issues are expected to support and cooperate with their ECOs and the campus Export Control Compliance program to create procedures and implement these as appropriate.
Faculty and Other Academic Appointees, Staff, Students and Non- employee participants in University programs
The local Export Control Compliance program should raise awareness so that faculty and other academic appointees, staff, students, and non-employee participants in University programs, especially those conducting work in high-risk areas, can identify activities that may have export control implications and seek guidance from subject experts. Accordingly, faculty and other academic appointees, staff, students, and non-employee participants in University programs are responsible for adhering to and supporting the University’s Export Control Compliance Program in their respective areas by: (1) completing any training that may be assigned by the ECO; (2) proactively identifying potential export control issues that may arise in the course of their University activities, in accordance with local training and awareness campaigns, and seeking assistance from their ECOs as appropriate; and (3) implementing any compliance measures or technology control plans as advised by the local Export Control Officer.
Faculty and other academic appointees, staff, students, and non-employee participants in University programs should contact the local Export Control Officer prior to engaging in situations including, but not limited to the following:
- Determining whether and how their activities (i.e., research, shipping, or exchange) involving export-restricted materials, items, information or software may be impacted by export control regulations.
- Making arrangements to bring export-controlled items, information or software onto a UC campus or into a UC research setting (e.g., proprietary and controlled software obtained through outside consulting).
- Traveling to, exporting to, or otherwise conducting University transactions with countries subject to Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) sanctions.
The ECO should also be contacted upon becoming aware of a potential export control regulatory violation at the University.
26 UC Locations have the discretion of organizing and assigning the duties and responsibilities of the ECOs as they deem appropriate.
This Policy requires leadership commitment for the establishment of local Export Control Compliance programs by all UC locations. Such programs must be consistent with the U.S. Export Control regulations, this Policy, other University policies, and any export control implementing guidance issued by the UC Office of the President. In establishing local Export Control Compliance Programs, the campus administration should consult with the various stakeholders, including their respective Academic Senate.
A. Export Control Compliance Programs
Compliance programs should be documented and minimally include the following elements.
- Designation of local Export Control Officer(s);
- Delegation of authority for export control compliance functions;
- Identification of the export control compliance responsibilities pertaining to the various offices at the UC Location (See Appendix A for a sample matrix that identifies potential risk areas and responsible offices.);
- Establishment of a committee or workgroup, comprised of various responsible offices and stakeholders (See Appendix A) to facilitate communication and provide input to the ECO;
- Training and education of Export Control Officer(s);
- Communication, training, and education for the campus community (including Faculty and Other Academic Appointees, Staff, Students, and Non-employee participants in University programs) to promote understanding and awareness of the Export Control regulations, especially by those in high-risk areas;
- Implementation of practices and procedures to be carried out by the ECO and/or other offices at the UC Location for:
- Identification, review, and determination of any export control requirements, including control plans, licensing exceptions, and/or other tactics as applicable for the items below.
- materials shipped abroad, including jurisdiction and export classification;
- export (or deemed export) to restricted individuals and entities;
- travel by UC personnel to sanctioned countries;
- the purchase of export-restricted items;
- research contracts and agreements, especially those that contain provisions such as publication controls or access/dissemination restrictions (e.g., approval requirements for the participation of foreign nationals);
- access to or use of ITAR-controlled technology or equipment;
- material transfer agreements, license agreements, sales and service agreements, and other agreements;
- Submission of requests for export licenses (including a process to determine the need for export licenses, the use of general licenses, the use of regulatory exceptions and exemptions, and a requirement that all export licenses be coordinated with the ECO);
- Escalation of ITAR license requests to the SECO;
- Establishment of Technology Control Plans (TCPs) when warranted;
- Maintenance of records (see Record Keeping below);
- Oversight of the local Export Control Compliance program, including regular audits/assessments; and
- Review, investigation, escalation, and disposition of reported or suspected violations (see section on Potential Violations: Escalations, Reviews, and Investigations, and section on Disclosures below). This includes the establishment of procedures to allow individuals to report potential non- compliance whether through new or existing means.
- Identification, review, and determination of any export control requirements, including control plans, licensing exceptions, and/or other tactics as applicable for the items below.
Each set of U.S. export control regulations (e.g., EAR, OFAC, ITAR, DOE, FTR, and NRC) contains specific recordkeeping requirements that must be satisfied. UC Locations must keep copies of all export documentation as required by the controlling regulations, and must designate the office(s) of record to archive export reviews, applications, licenses and other related records, such as shipping paperwork, TCPs, and financial records. Licensing documentation shall be retained according to the regulations and as captured in UC Records Retention Schedule. In the event of conflict between the retention periods in the regulations and the UC
Records Retention Schedule, the periods specified by the regulations shall take precedence. If the controlling agencies have no stated requirements, records should be kept no longer than as required by the UC Records Retention Schedule. Consult with the local Export Control Officer to verify or obtain record retention information and instructions.
For ITAR recordkeeping, the Empowered Official will forward ITAR licenses to the Export Control Officer at the location to which the license pertains. When the license has been exhausted, the UC Location will be responsible for returning the original to the Department of State, with a copy provided to the SECO.
C. Potential Violations: Escalations, Reviews, Investigations
The University will respond promptly to all reports of non-compliance, and will take appropriate action to correct and prevent future violations.
Individuals may use existing means of reporting suspected violations, such as whistleblower hotlines, or may report via any other mechanism established for that purpose in the relevant location’s local Export Control plan. A local official who receives a report of a suspected violation must coordinate with the local Export Control Officer, legal counsel, and other leadership as necessary. UC Locations should halt transactions, if appropriate, investigate the suspected violation, and evaluate what steps should be taken. Locations must determine whether a reported incident appears to constitute a violation of law and/or policy, and whether it is a result of systemic institutional practices or procedures. Locations must promptly report suspected violations of the U.S. export control regulations to the SECO and OGC. Corrective action plans should include provisions to prevent recurrence of any violations arising from systemic institutional practices or procedures.
Export control violations can result in civil and criminal penalties against the University and the individuals involved, including assessment of fines and/or imprisonment of individuals. Penalties apply to each specific violation, which means that if a violation relates to more than one controlled material or item, or occurs on more than one occasion, each item or incident may trigger a separate penalty.
Failure to comply with this Policy may be grounds for discipline pursuant to the Faculty Code of Conduct and the University Policy on Faculty Conduct and the Administration of Discipline27 and/or other applicable disciplinary policies. Federal regulations may require reporting of any violations to the cognizant agency responsible for the export control regulation and to federal sponsors.
D. Disclosures to Federal Agencies
The export control regulations contain provisions governing voluntary self-disclosure of violations to the relevant government agency. Voluntary and timely self- disclosures may mitigate the seriousness of a penalty. Any such disclosures concerning an ITAR matter must be prepared in conjunction with the local Export Control Officer, the SECO, and OGC. For all other disclosures, the Export Control
Officer at each location must coordinate with local leadership (including the compliance officer) and counsel, and provide advance notification to the SECO and OGC.
27Academic Personnel Policy Section 015, The Faculty Code of Conduct (APM – 015) and Section 016, University Policy on Faculty Conduct and the Administration of Discipline (APM-016).
VI. RELATED INFORMATION
The list below provides links and/or summary information on the most common export regulations.28
Department of State — https://www.pmddtc.state.gov/
International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), 22 C.F.R. §§ 120-30.
The U.S. Department of State, Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC), regulates items and information inherently military in design, purpose, or use through the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). Referred to as “defense articles,” such items are found on the U.S. Munitions List. 22 C.F.R. § 121. Certain information related to Defense Articles is referred to as “technical data.” Licenses are required for the export of Defense Articles and Defense Services to every country. There may be items that are not inherently military that are included on the USML, such as satellites or items that incorporate a defense article.
Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security — http://www.bis.doc.gov/
Export Administration Regulations (EAR), 15 CFR §§ 730-74.
The U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) controls goods and information having both a civilian and military use (“Dual Use”) through the Export Administration Regulations (EAR). Dual Use items are placed on the Commerce Control List (CCL), which is also known as the “Dual Use List.” 15 C.F.R.
§ 774. BIS also controls some military items formerly on the USML (mostly parts and components) that do not provide a critical military capability or intelligence. BIS uses the term “technology” or “technical data” when referring to certain information about the goods on the Commerce Control List.
Department of Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) – http://www.treasury.gov/about/organizational-structure/offices/Pages/Office-of-Foreign- Assets-Control.aspx
OFAC Sanctions Regulations, 31 C.F.R. §§ 501-98.
OFAC Sanctions Programs and Country Information.
The U.S. Department of the Treasury oversees U.S. economic sanctions and embargoes through its Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). Empowered by the
Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917, 50 U.S.C. app. §§ 1-44, and the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. §§ 1701-08, OFAC enforces import and export trade, anti-terrorism, narcotics, human rights and other national security- and foreign policy-based sanctions prohibiting the provision of anything of value, either tangible or intangible, to sanctioned countries, organizations or individuals.
The pertinent regulations provide OFAC with broad authority to block or interdict certain “prohibited transactions” involving restricted destinations or parties.
Department of Commerce, Census Bureau – https://www.census.gov/foreign- trade/regulations/
Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR), 15 C.F.R. § 30.
The Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR) (promulgated at Title 13, United States Code (U.S.C.), Chapter 9, section 301) mandate Electronic Export Information (EEI) reporting through the Automated Export System (AES) for all shipments valued over $2500 or those requiring an export license. Some exceptions fall under Section 30.2 of the FTR.
Department of Energy
Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities, 10 C.F.R. § 810.
The Department of Energy regulates the export of unclassified nuclear technologies in its Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities regulations.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) – http://www.nrc.gov/about-nrc/ip/export-import.html
Export and Import of Nuclear Equipment and Material, 10 C.F.R. § 110.
The NRC regulates the import and export of commodities related to nuclear energy.
Other federal agencies regulating exports and imports include the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
28 This list is not comprehensive. Persons are advised to consult with the local Export Control Officer. All links and references are as of June 13, 2016. All regulations are subject to change; Export Control Officers should regularly review the federal agencies’ websites for updates.
VII. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
See the FAQs on the Ethics, Compliance and Audit Website.
VIII. REVISION HISTORY
June 21, 2018: Initial Issuance. This Policy was also remediated to meet Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0.
University of California – Policy on Export Control
Appendix A: Sample Responsible Offices Chart — sample activities that may involve export issues; may vary by location